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If a pilot wishes to obtain an initial FAA type rating - say, for a Boeing 737 - are the requirements to obtain that rating the same as if they were getting a type rating for an Airbus A320? If they are different, where can these requirements be found?

Assume that in both cases the pilot is ATP-rated.

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Actually, it doesn't matter whether you are a Private pilot or an ATP, the requirements for a type rating are in the Airline Transport Pilot and Aircraft Type Rating Practical Test Standards, which apply regardless of the aircraft type.

In the PTS, it says:

Practical Test Book Description

This practical test book contains the Airline Transport Pilot and Aircraft Type Rating Practical Test Standards—Airplane. The Airline Transport Pilot and Aircraft Type Rating Practical Test Standards—Airplane includes Areas of Operation and Tasks for the initial issuance of an airline transport pilot certificate and for the addition of category, class, and aircraft type ratings to an airline transport pilot certificate. These Areas of Operation and Tasks also apply for the issuance of an airplane type rating to a private or commercial pilot certificate.

You basically cover everything needed for the ATP. The differences between the different airplanes come out during the practical test just like they do for any other checkride. The examiner (who will be typed in the airplane) asks you about the things that are specific to each airplane, but this isn't really a lot different than him asking you questions specific to a Cessna or a Piper during your private pilot checkride.

The PTS specifies general Areas of Operation's instead of saying exactly what needs to be tested for every aircraft type.

Here they are for a type rating:

Section 1: Preflight Preparation

Areas of Operation

I. Preflight Preparation
Task A: Equipment Examination
Task B: Performance and Limitations Task C: Water and Seaplane Characteristics (AMES/ASES)
Task D: Seaplane Bases, Maritime Rules, and Aids to Marine Navigation (AMES/ASES)

Section 2: Preflight Procedures, Inflight Maneuvers, and Postflight Procedures

Areas of Operation

II. Preflight Procedures
Task A: Preflight Inspection
Task B: Powerplant Start Task C: TAXIING Task D: Sailing (AMES/ASES)
Task E: Seaplane Base/Water Landing Site Markings and Lighting (AMES, ASES)
Task F: Pre-Takeoff Checks

III. Takeoff and Departure Phase
Task A: Normal and Crosswind Takeoff
Task B: Glassy Water Takeoff and Climb (AMES/ASES)
Task C: Rough Water Takeoff and Climb (AMES/ASES)
Task D: Confined-Area Takeoff and Climb (AMES/ASES)
Task E: Instrument Takeoff
Task F: Powerplant Failure during Takeoff
Task G: Rejected Takeoff
Task H: Departure Procedures

IV. Inflight Maneuvers
Task A: Steep Turns
Task B: Approaches to Stalls and Stall Recovery
Task C: Powerplant Failure—Multiengine Airplane
Task D: Powerplant Failure—Single–Engine Airplane
Task E: Specific Flight Characteristics
Task F: Recovery from Unusual Attitudes

V. Instrument Procedures
Task A: Standard Terminal Arrival/Flight Management System Procedures
Task B: Holding
Task C: Precision Approaches (PA) Task D: Nonprecision Approaches (NPA)
Task E: Circling Approach Task F: Missed Approach

VI. Landings and Approaches to Landings
Task A: Normal and Crosswind Approaches and Landings
Task B: Landing from a Precision Approach
Task C: Approach and Landing with (Simulated) Powerplant Failure—Multiengine Airplane
Task D: Landing From a Circling Approach
Task E: Rough Water Approach and Landing (AMES/ASES)
Task F: Glassy Water Approach And Landing (AMES/ASES) Task G: Confined-Area Approach and Landing (AMES/ASES)
Task H: Rejected Landing
Task I: Landing from a No Flap or a Nonstandard Flap Approach

VII. Normal and Abnormal Procedures
Task A: Normal and Abnormal Procedures

VIII. Emergency Procedures
Task A: Emergency Procedures

IX. Postflight Procedures
Task A: After-Landing Procedures
Task B: Anchoring (AMES/ASES)
Task C: Docking and Mooring (AMES/ASES)
Task D: Beaching (AMES/ASES)
Task E: Ramping (AMES/ASES)
Task F: Parking and Securing

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